The new context of crises and security threats in Africa remains a major issue. Indeed, in addition to traditional threats, in recent years we have witnessed the expansion of radical ideologies, which have resulted in violent and even terrorist modes of action. Despite efforts to restructure the armed and security forces in Africa, it appears that they have increasingly limited capacities to provide defence and security for territories, persons and property.
In actual fact, many countries on the continent have not taken the trouble to adopt a genuine comprehensive defence and security policy, thereby reducing their ability to anticipate crises and threats. As a result, « instability and insecurity in Africa are mainly rooted in the collapse of security sector governance: favouritism, a security apparatus totally focused on preserving the existing regime, political and social exclusion ». In this context, the construction of peace and security, and more specifically human security, are at the heart of the challenges in Africa.